Canada a country in the Northern half of North America, has ten provinces and three territories, which are extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It covers an area of 9.98 million square kilometers making it the world’s largest country. Canada’s border with the United States is the world’s longest land border. Canada occupies much of the continent of North America and shares its land borders with the United States towards south and the US state of Alaska to the northwest. Greenland is to the Northeast.
The country is sparsely populated the majority of its land territory being denominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains; about four fifth of the country’s population live near the south border. Canada is a developed country and has the tenth highest per capita income globally as well as ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. Because of the large number of people living in this country are from Sikh community it is often referred to as “The Second Punjab”. As per the census of 2011 the population of the country was about 33,476688 which is expected to rise to approx. 36,155,487 by 2016.The country is Federal Parliamentary Democracy and constitution with Queen Elizabeth II as the head of state. Toronto, the largest city of Canada is densely populated while Ottawa is the capital of this wonderful country.
A number of languages are used by Canadians. English and French are the mother tongues of approximately 60% and 20% Canadians respectively. Nearly 6.8 million people listed a non-official language as their mother tongue which includes Chinese, Punjabi, Spanish, German and Italian. Although more than 85% of the French speaking people live in Quebec, there is absolute Francophone population in New Brunswick, Alberta and Manitoba. French is used as a language of instructions in courts and for other Government services together with English. There are 11 Aboriginal language groups which are composed of more than 65 different dialects while several aboriginal languages have official status in some territories.
The majority of Canada has severely cold winter climate but some areas are warm in summer. Average winter and summer temperatures across the country vary from region to region. Winters are shivering in many parts of the country especially in the interior and Prairie Provinces which have a continental climate where daily average temperatures are near -15 Degree Celsius with severe wind chills. In nine coastal regions snow cover the ground for six months of the year, while in parts of the north snow can persist year around Coastal British Columbia has a moderate climate with mild and rainy winter. On the east and west coasts average high temperature is generally in the low 20s degree Celsius while between the coasts average high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 degree Celsius.
The Bank of Canada is the Central Bank of the country. In addition the Minister of Finance and Minister of Industry use the Statistics Canada Agency for financial Planning and Economic Policy Development.